Category: Lecturette

Important things to know about Mission Shakti

India has successfully test-fired a sophisticated anti-satellite missile in ‘Mission Shakti’ and shattered a live satellite flying in the low-Earth orbit, PM Narendra Modi announced in a televised national address. With this successful space mission, India has become the fourth country to attain such a specialized and modern capability; making it a ‘space superpower’. Prime Minister gave assurance to the international community that “our capability will not be used against any person but is merely India’s defence initiative for its security. We are against arms race in the space. This test will not violate any international law or treaties.”

Mission Shakti is a joint programme of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). In a rare televised address to the nation, PM Modi announced the success of the space defence mission programme when he declared that India has shot down a low-orbit earth satellite at a height of 300 km from the earth’s surface.


Important point’s about Mission Shakti

1. Mission Shakti’ is an anti-satellite missile test, under which an Anti-Satellite or ASAT missile shot down the Low Earth Orbit satellite ‘in 3 minutes of launch’.

2. The satellite that has been used in the mission was one of the country’s existing satellites working in lower orbit. The satellite was in orbit at 300 kms when it was smashed.

3. The successful launch of the ASAT has made India enter the exclusive group of countries with capabilities to launch such sophisticated missiles. It is now the 4th country to have successfully tested the Anti-Satellite missile after US, Russia & China.

4. The whole effort of Mission Shakti is original and has been executed by Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO).

5. India, with Mission Shakti, has successfully exhibited its capability to bar and seize a satellite in outer space based on complete indigenous technology.

6. DRDO’s Ballistic Missile Defence interceptor was used for Mission Shakti, which is part of the continuing ballistic missile defence programme.

7. The anti-satellite missile test was conducted in the lower atmosphere to make sure that there is no space debris. Whatever wreckage is generated will decompose and fall back in the earth within weeks.


Prime Minister has called it a test of India’s potential to bring down low orbit satellites and stated that India’s action was not directed against any nation. “Mission Shakti was a highly complex one, conducted at extremely high speed with remarkable precision. It shows the remarkable dexterity of India’s outstanding scientists and the success of our space programme”.

Mission Shakti has strengthened India’s space programme and it is a step towards country’s safety, security, economic growth and technological advancement.



This blog will help you in strategising your preparation and help you score the maximum in upcoming AFCAT exam.

  1. Identify your strong areas from English, Arithmetic Aptitude, Non-Verbal Aptitude, Verbal Aptitude, Static G.K., Current affairs. These are the sections which are asked in the exam.
  2. How to prepare for English?

The level of English being asked in AFCAT is quite high. Those of you who aren’t ardent readers of English newspapers and other literature should either develop their reading habits in these 60 days or leave it for good as there is negative marking in the exam. Those who read a little bit can perform better by putting in some more efforts by reading newspapers like ‘The Hindu’ and ‘The Indian Express’. When reading these papers, note down the difficult words and try to read the articles in one go without taking breaks. These two exercises will develop your vocabulary, reading comprehension and overall knowledge as well. Everyday, note down 5 idioms and phrases with their usage in common language. These exercises will fetch you significant marks in exam and an edge over other aspirants because most of them try to avoid attempting this particular section.

  1. How to prepare for Arithmetic Aptitude?

Arithmetic asked in the exam is simple and it can be easily attempted. Most of the candidates preparing for government exams and bank exams are proficient in it because of their regular practice. Those of you who haven’t touched the basic arithmetic ; in particular the engineering students who often don’t get time due to their vast syllabus of engineering can still perform better in it. The level is of class 10th only. What matters is speed over here. Arun Sharma is the best book for preparation not only for this exam, but any exam where arithmetic is asked. Solve the level 1 of each topic and you will easily sail through the arithmetic part of AFCAT. Increase your solving speed everyday as it will give you an edge always.

  1. How to prepare Verbal and Non-Verbal Aptitude?

It is easy but sometimes it can be tricky and make you get stuck in the middle of the paper. The key to solve this section is to solve as many problems as you can and improve your grasp and speed. There’s no set rule and syllabi for this section but you can practice it more and more from various portals available over the internet. Mind it, don’t purchase any test series from any institute because it’s not so difficult to attempt this section cent percent with complete accuracy. There are various apps available where you can practice and get a feel of real time exam with a timer. No need of purchasing any book for this section.

  1. How to prepare static G.K. and current affairs?

Without any hesitation or ay second thought, follow Unacdemy on YouTube. The way different subjects are explained over there can help you in cracking exams up to the level of SSC-CGL. Practice it on a daily basis on apps like Adda247, oliveboard etc. Many others are also available, you just have to be smart enough to choose what suits you the best.


At last, practice is the key and fully use the online material, apps with timing. Do your best as marks do determine your final merit. All the best.


Commands of Indian Army


LOCATION: Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh


WARS SEEN: The command has seen the war in the World War II which Indian army was part of. It was reestablished after the Indo-Sino war



LOCATION: Udhampur, J&K




LOCATION: Chandimandhir, Haryana


WARS SEEN: Indo-Pak wars of 1947, 1965, 1971

CURRENT COMMANDER: Lt Gen Kamal jit Singh




WARS SEEN: 1971 indo-Pak. (Capture of eastern Pakistan under then commander Lt. Gen JS Aurora)

CURRENT COMMANDER: Lt Gen Praveen Bakshi


LOCATION: Pune, Maharastra

ACTIVE SINCE: 1908 predominantly hold the armoured corp in control

WARS SEEN: Indo-Pak 1965, 1971, annexation of GOA



LOCATION: Jaipur, Rajasthan


CURRENT COMMANDER : Lt Gen Sharath Chand


LOCATION: Shimla, Himachal Pradesh



Privatization of Education in India

Privatization is the process of transfer of responsibilities in possession by the government to private organizations. In India, Privatization exists pre-independence, institutes like Doon School, Mayo College, Christian Missionary institutes, independent of the government. But in recent years, the quality of education in government institutes has degraded drastically.


Privatization signifies a wide range of ideas – induction of private ownership, management and control of organizations. Privatization can imply deregulation meaning thereby lesser control of the government.

It refers to expansion of private sector and reduction of public sector. It also means that areas reserved for the public sector will be opened to the private sector.

The shift towards privatization reduces the role of the government and increases the role of the private, cooperative and local government. The areas of shift are mainly decision making and responsibility of money and administration.

After China and US, India has the largest education system in the world, but still counted as a mediocre country and the reason being :

  1. Lack of skilled human resources

As per a survey by Aspiring Minds, India has 6000+ engineering institutions enrolling more than 3 million students. Out of these only 7% have suitable skills to handle core engineering tasks.

  1. Low quality of education

At almost all levels including the primary, secondary or college level education. Acc to a survey, 53% Students of fifth grade from government institutes, do not know how to read and write ‘Hindi’ properly and if they do, they just memorize the lessons without any understanding or manage through private tuitions.

  1. Lack of Skilled and Trained Teachers and Professors

The unavailability of skilled and determined teachers to teach effectively, and their lack of will power deteriorates the quality of education.

  1. Poor Physical Infrastructure

Lack of basic amenities, to provide learning environment. Majority of govt. institutes do not have a proper infrastructure and sitting arrangement, as students are made to sit on the floor or outside the classroom as the roof could fall anytime.

  1. Less concern by guardians to their ward’s education

Guardians / Parents admit their ward into an institution and become less concerned about them.

  1. Job Security to govt. teachers
    If the teacher/professor in a govt. institute or college fails to be effective educator or deliver an expected quality of education, they have their jobs secure.

7. Rule of Passing students till Class 8th.

Advantages / Pros

  1. Competitive Efficiency

Privatization rests heavily on the grounds of efficiency to promote a more competitive environment. Privatization can improve the efficiency of education for all, only with a transparent and effective –transfer-payment system

  1. Education to a high population

India has a population of nearly 1.3 Billion; in order to provide education to a large number of people more private institutions are needed. To fulfill the demand for higher education of young people in the country privatization of education is needed..

  1. Better Infrastructure

Private institutions do not require long procedures for procurement of human as well as material resources. In order to purchase and maintain good qualitative infrastructure and equipment like furniture, buildings, different types of laboratories and qualified and competent academic staff, who can be paid as per the demand, there is a need for privatization.

  1. Learning Environment

In terms of school organization, material resources, building, furniture and well-equipped laboratories with scientific instruments.

  1. Better Performance

A study by sociologist James S. Coleman and his associates (1982) concluded that private schools provide better quality of education. They have fewer absences, instances of cutting classes, and fights, along with more homework, smaller classes, and greater participation in games and sports. Not only this, the study pointed out that private school students do better than their counterparts in public schools on tests and measures of self-esteem.

  1. Privatization has the potential and capability to take responsibility for higher education.,


  1. Cost of Education – Most of the private institutions adhere with a high fee structure and out 1.3 Billion Indian population, around 80% of Indian population is at National Poverty Line.
  2. Children don’t have time for themselves to spend on outdoor games and are confined to Gadgets.
  3. Teachers have tremendous work pressure, so they have to work hard.
  4. Most Private institutions are meant for financially strong strata of the society and the poor children are bound to go to government institutes. This has widened the gap between the poor and the rich.


The growing era of technology, increasing population and demand of skill are the utmost needs of a developing country, and so is the need of Privatization in Education in India. The major cause of privatization of education is that the government has failed to respond to an increasing demand for schooling because of growing population attending schools.

Privatization of education affects the learning efficiency, social security of teacher by providing better pay to them.

Privatization of education can help India to gain higher competitive advantage in education sector. There can be some manipulations but can be managed by proper rules and regulation by government. There are always pros and cons but we can over cum by involving government and private sectors effectively

The private initiative in education, especially higher education is not new to India. Some of the leading universities like Banaras Hindu University and Aligarh Muslim University came up with the efforts,

Providing free and compulsory education to all is a basic duty of government and it cannot be neglected. So government has to invest more and more funds in development of primary education and focus more on skill development and stop the rule of passing students upto class 8th.

Privatization of education will also reduce burden on the government. It is a must needed step after demonetization, to build not just a corruption free nation, but a robust one.

11 Things To Keep In Mind For Lecturette In SSB


Lecturette is a GTO task. Here, a candidate has to give a lecture on any one of the given 4 topics for duration of 3 minutes.

The first candidate according to the chest number will be called to pick up one card (which will have all the 4 topics) from the pile of cards and will be given 3 minutes or less to prepare for his or her lecture. After the first candidate is ready to start, the second candidate will be called to pick his or her card and start preparing while the first candidate speaks. This procedure continues for the whole group.

On the completion of two and a half minutes the GTO will ring a bell as an indication that the speaker has 30 seconds left to finish his talk. On the completion of three minutes, the GTO rings two bells and the first candidate stops and sits down and the second candidate start giving his lecture.

Lecturette is a task where your confidence about public speaking is evaluated. The following qualities are evaluated in a candidate during their lecture:

  1. Confidence of speaking.
  2. Fluency in speaking.
  3. Ability to deliver under stressful situations.
  4. General Awareness.
  5. Body Language.
  6. Synchronisation of points being put forward.
  7. Efficiency in speaking in front of a group.
  8. Ability to capture the attentiveness of the listeners.

11 things to keep in mind for your lecture task:

  1. Start speaking in English with your friends and family. This will help you to become proficient in your communication.
  2. Start reading newspaper articles, magazines and general awareness books to keep you acquainted with the happenings around the world. This will help you gain knowledge and will boost your confidence to speak on any topic.
  3. If you are shy about speaking in front of a group, practise speaking in front of a mirror by looking directly into your eyes. This will help you to gain confidence on public speaking.
  4. Keep a correct and formal body posture while giving your lecture. Don’t use hand movements.
  5. While giving your lecture, maintain an eye-contact with your friends sitting in front. This will give an impression of your confidence while delivering your thoughts and also will make the listeners much more attentive about your lecture.
  6. Never look at the GTO while speaking.
  7. At home, while preparing, practice demo lecturette tasks. Ask a friend or family member to give you any random four topics and then a preparation time of three minutes. Keep a stopwatch in hand and mark three minutes on it. Then speak on one of those four topics for three minutes. This will help you enhance your ability to talk under stress and also make your communication skills better.
  8. While giving your lecture, neither exceed the given time nor finish too early. Wait for the 2:30 minute reminder bell and then give your final thoughts on the topic.
  9. Choose the topic out of the given four which you’re confident about. Do not select a topic of higher level just to look smart. Speak on a topic about which you have full knowledge.
  10. In the given preparation time of three minutes, make a sequence of all the points that you will elaborate on while you give your lecture. Make sure that your lecture covers four sections about the topic: the history of the topic, the present scenario, the probable future developments and your views on that topic.
  11. And most importantly, keep your calm while giving your lecture. Nothing captures more attention than a confident and relaxed person.

The GTO will evaluate you on the basis of your expression of thoughts and your public speaking skills. The more you practice your communication skills and general awareness, the easier it would be to speak efficiently in the lecturette. All the best for SSB.



The food security is one of the primary concerns in our country today. Despite being an agrarian economy and exporters of food grains, vegetables and fruits , we’re not able to meet the needs of our own countrymen which is a stark contrast in itself. When the food grains are being  wasted due to spoilage due to lack of storehouses, rodents and seasonal changes ; there’s an urgent need of technological advancement to satisfy the ever increasing human population.

Genetically modified food is one such concept which has already seen the light of the day and has proven record in countries like the U.S. But in India, only Bt. Cotton , a genetically modified version of cotton is being used presently and as a result of which, India has risen up the ladder and have become the second largest exporter of cotton in the world.  Today G.M. seeds account for 90% of the cotton sown in India. But , other eatable crops and vegetables aren’t being allowed in our country because of the fears of some irreversible damages that could take place once we consume these foods.

By genetic modification, it is meant that the seed’s DNA is altered in order to say, increase it’s resistance to insects and pests. These insects and pests have caused a great deal of loss to our farmers. These are of the order of Rs.50,000 crore. Drought coupled with lack of irrigation facilities are exacerbating the problem.

The average Indian is deficient in protein which one of the basic yet most important nutrient for a proper growth. And, since the majority diet of Indians is vegetarian, the problem escalate even more. Protein is abundant in legumes and lentils and genetic engineering is the only way of increasing the domestic production rather than depending upon imports from other countries. This will ensure a proper and nutritious diet for the rest of our country men.

Most of us remain sceptical about the after effects of G.M. foods on our bodies. We need to have a balanced view for our doubts which can be sorted out with few points given as below.


  1. The G.M. crops yield higher in comparison to normal crops on comparison to normal per unit of land. As the demand for housing increases , the land available for cultivation will decrease. In this scenario, G.M. crops will show us the way as they can bear more fruits than normal.
  2. The health quotient i.e, the availability of G.M. crops can be increased. Since the changes are done at the DNA level, the resulting fruit or food grain will have the same nutrient content as the whole bunch an every grain in the field on an average and that too in enriched form.
  3. With G.M. , expert can provide strong built in resistance which can reduce the use of pesticides. Many studies show that G.M. soyabean and corn in U.S. led to 13 million kilo reduction in pesticides in years upto 2009.
  4. Crops can be modified for better flavour and quality. These are controllable and can make a huge market in itself to the demands of other countries, the developed nations in particular. The crop can also get  a longer shelf life if modification is allowed .


  1. Since, genetic modification is a technology, people can secure patents and will prefer only big farmers for cultivation thereby hurting the economics of the small farmer.
  2. It is often argued that there’s no replacement whatsoever of the original and remains at par with the modified food.
  3. M. is like tobacco, which is more often an addiction and could harm allergy sufferers. They could increase resistance to antibiotics causing more damage than benefiting.
  4. M. crops often creates a “super weed” which are herbicide resistant and are a threat to other crops .

“Fooling with nature” is nothing new: the present generation crops are the genetic variants of wild plants. Humans have tested and experienced them for their survival over many millenniums. Our latest tools include G.M. allowing precision and wider choice of useful qualities.

There have been instances where GM has proven to be a blessing in disguise. For instance, cotton’s enemy, bollworm pest has been beaten with G.M. Rice based diets around the world, which are lacking in Vit.A , were replaced with golden rice thus reducing the chances of blindness in children .

Around the globe , one person dies of starvation every 3.6 seconds and that’s a real statistic. It doesn’t require in depth scientific research or sophisticated ties of war. Preventing starvation requires only one thing : FOOD.