Privatization is the process of transfer of responsibilities in possession by the government to private organizations. In India, Privatization exists pre-independence, institutes like Doon School, Mayo College, Christian Missionary institutes, independent of the government. But in recent years, the quality of education in government institutes has degraded drastically.
Privatization signifies a wide range of ideas – induction of private ownership, management and control of organizations. Privatization can imply deregulation meaning thereby lesser control of the government.
It refers to expansion of private sector and reduction of public sector. It also means that areas reserved for the public sector will be opened to the private sector.
The shift towards privatization reduces the role of the government and increases the role of the private, cooperative and local government. The areas of shift are mainly decision making and responsibility of money and administration.
After China and US, India has the largest education system in the world, but still counted as a mediocre country and the reason being :
- Lack of skilled human resources
As per a survey by Aspiring Minds, India has 6000+ engineering institutions enrolling more than 3 million students. Out of these only 7% have suitable skills to handle core engineering tasks.
- Low quality of education
At almost all levels including the primary, secondary or college level education. Acc to a survey, 53% Students of fifth grade from government institutes, do not know how to read and write ‘Hindi’ properly and if they do, they just memorize the lessons without any understanding or manage through private tuitions.
- Lack of Skilled and Trained Teachers and Professors
The unavailability of skilled and determined teachers to teach effectively, and their lack of will power deteriorates the quality of education.
- Poor Physical Infrastructure
Lack of basic amenities, to provide learning environment. Majority of govt. institutes do not have a proper infrastructure and sitting arrangement, as students are made to sit on the floor or outside the classroom as the roof could fall anytime.
- Less concern by guardians to their ward’s education
Guardians / Parents admit their ward into an institution and become less concerned about them.
- Job Security to govt. teachers
If the teacher/professor in a govt. institute or college fails to be effective educator or deliver an expected quality of education, they have their jobs secure.
7. Rule of Passing students till Class 8th.
Advantages / Pros
- Competitive Efficiency
Privatization rests heavily on the grounds of efficiency to promote a more competitive environment. Privatization can improve the efficiency of education for all, only with a transparent and effective –transfer-payment system
- Education to a high population
India has a population of nearly 1.3 Billion; in order to provide education to a large number of people more private institutions are needed. To fulfill the demand for higher education of young people in the country privatization of education is needed..
- Better Infrastructure
Private institutions do not require long procedures for procurement of human as well as material resources. In order to purchase and maintain good qualitative infrastructure and equipment like furniture, buildings, different types of laboratories and qualified and competent academic staff, who can be paid as per the demand, there is a need for privatization.
- Learning Environment
In terms of school organization, material resources, building, furniture and well-equipped laboratories with scientific instruments.
- Better Performance
A study by sociologist James S. Coleman and his associates (1982) concluded that private schools provide better quality of education. They have fewer absences, instances of cutting classes, and fights, along with more homework, smaller classes, and greater participation in games and sports. Not only this, the study pointed out that private school students do better than their counterparts in public schools on tests and measures of self-esteem.
- Privatization has the potential and capability to take responsibility for higher education.,
- Cost of Education – Most of the private institutions adhere with a high fee structure and out 1.3 Billion Indian population, around 80% of Indian population is at National Poverty Line.
- Children don’t have time for themselves to spend on outdoor games and are confined to Gadgets.
- Teachers have tremendous work pressure, so they have to work hard.
- Most Private institutions are meant for financially strong strata of the society and the poor children are bound to go to government institutes. This has widened the gap between the poor and the rich.
The growing era of technology, increasing population and demand of skill are the utmost needs of a developing country, and so is the need of Privatization in Education in India. The major cause of privatization of education is that the government has failed to respond to an increasing demand for schooling because of growing population attending schools.
Privatization of education affects the learning efficiency, social security of teacher by providing better pay to them.
Privatization of education can help India to gain higher competitive advantage in education sector. There can be some manipulations but can be managed by proper rules and regulation by government. There are always pros and cons but we can over cum by involving government and private sectors effectively
The private initiative in education, especially higher education is not new to India. Some of the leading universities like Banaras Hindu University and Aligarh Muslim University came up with the efforts,
Providing free and compulsory education to all is a basic duty of government and it cannot be neglected. So government has to invest more and more funds in development of primary education and focus more on skill development and stop the rule of passing students upto class 8th.
Privatization of education will also reduce burden on the government. It is a must needed step after demonetization, to build not just a corruption free nation, but a robust one.